SMi Source Lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History

  • SMi Source lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History has the following microlearning topics

  • 1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)

  • Lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History teaches these concepts

  • Diabetes, Pathophysiology, Natural History, T2DM, Type 2

  • Lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History addresses these key points

    • Understanding this natural history of type 2 diabetes will help in understanding this chronic disease as a continuum, ranging from early insulin resistance to insulin secretion deficiency.
    • Some patients with insulin resistance, who are able to maintain sufficient β-cell function to overcome the insulin resistance never progress to diabetes.
    • Genetic predisposition to the development of type 2 diabetes.
    • Clinical presentation is heterogeneous, with a wide range in age of onset, severity of associated hyperglycemia, and degree of obesity.
    • The metabolic changes observed can occur years or even decades before a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

    • Insulin resistance is an important defect in type 2 diabetes.
    • Pancreatic β-cells are able to compensate by increasing insulin levels, leading to hyperinsulinemia.
    • Keeps glucose levels normalized for a period of time.
    • IGT develops with mild postprandial hyperglycemia.
    • Glucose levels remain normal or near normal, when pancreatic beta cells are able to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production and secretion.
    • β-cells are eventually damaged due to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity.
    • Insulin secretion declines resulting in increased hepatic glucose production, leading to further elevations in fasting blood glucoseconcentrations.
    • Insulin resistance becomes more severe, a progression that may be due not only to full expression of genetic defects, but also to acquired factors such as obesity, decreased physical activity, and aging.
  • Lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History is built from these main references. Log into SMi Source for a complete list and details.

  • Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabtetes. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.  Diabetes Care. January, 2008; 31: S62-S67

    Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th ed. 2008 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier

    Rakel: Integrative Medicine

  • Lesson Diabetes: Type 2 - History introduces and defines these terms

  • IGT - Impaired Glucose Tolerance